Comune di Castagneto Carducci

History

The primary role exercised in time by a noble family in the territory of the Gherardesca Castagneto , constantly subject to his authority , since medieval times , in the past has led many historians to weave in the form variously differentiated , the oldest events in the locality and the surrounding area with those of the supposed founder of the family, in a sort of atavistic union which was sometimes used as a tool to legitimize the secular right of possession exercised on the spot by members of the illustrious family . In the opinion of some , in fact , the origin of the Gherardesca be traced back to the Lombard Walfredo who, in 754 , appears to have founded , near the present Monteverdi , in the monastery of St. Peter in Palazzuolo , linking to it, through donation, Castagneto both territorial and several other properties . Historical data shows the existence of a close relationship between the land of Castagneto and Gherardesca , so much so that some components of the seventh generation , are indicated in a document dated November 9, 1161 , with the title of Count di Castagneto, accompanied by to "domains" of Donoratico , and is among the members of the family that can be traced usual accounts of the neighboring towns of Segalari , Donoratico and Bolgheri . The acquisition of these and numerous other properties, originally scattered within the counties of Pisa , Populonia , Lucca and Volterra , represented of course a direct consequence of the political role played by the Gherardesca in the context of ancient Tuscia in the second half of the tenth century, in fact , some members of this family were accounts of Volterra and the investiture took place clearly reveals the existence of strong ties with the representatives of the central authority , which took the form below with the accession to the party enriciano , schieratosi to favor of the emperor Henry II to counter those forces of rebellion and autonomy that had led , in the year 1002, the election of Arduino of Ivrea king of Italy . The strong position taken by the pro-imperial Gherardeschi proved successful and produced as a direct consequence , a reconfirmation of the privileges previously acquired , which were added in the first half of the eleventh century , new political and economic benefits derived from the extension of estates . Towards the end of the fourteenth century it produces a movement of the family interests of Gherardesca of Volterra from the county to the city of Pisa, with a progressive acquisition of civic prestige , gathered together in the acquisition of important public offices . The new condition did not fail to cause large impacts on territories Mappartenenti to family feuds : if , in fact, from a legal point of view formal , in addition to the direct benefits resulting from the ownership of land ownership was delegated to management alone accounts of administrative justice , while the sphere of criminal justice is attributable to the Municipality of Pisa, in reality and in virtue of the dominance exerted on the political life of the Pisan Gherardesca enjoyed complete autonomy and fulfillment management , qualifying it as a unique and absolute lords of the community including in their fiefdoms . And ' only after 1405 , following the conquest of Pisa by the Florentines, who produced certain activities , such as to alter the previous administrative structure : in 1421 , the Community of Castagneto is authorized to give themselves the autonomous statutes , while in '25 the sphere of high justice , ie criminal justice , was subtracted from the possible interference of the family and given to the vicar Captain of Campiglia , directly dependent on the government of Florence. The changes mentioned , however, did not lead to a real uprooting of the ancient privileges and it should be borne in mind that in the Gherardesca were reconfirmed the rights of lordship , at the same time the accounts were appointed vicars of Castagneto and several other neighboring towns , with a ' operation , without changing the previous territorial structure of the property , merely reiterate the successful subordination to the central power in Florence. In terms of the relationship between the members of the family and the community of Castagneto is outlined , starting from the sixteenth century , a clear contrast , resulted in legal disputes that saw face each other from time to time the interests of indigenous people and those of the accounts : so - for example - between 1566 and '67 Francesco Della Gherardesca claimed the feudal rights of hunting, fishing , grazing and wood gathering , and in the case that followed saw recognize the first two from the Florentine court judge, while for others prevailed requests made by the local population , which , after several years, the Gherardesca were forced to cede the jus pascendi and permission of usufruct on the timber ( 1600-1610 ) . E ' , however, in the eighteenth century and more precisely in the Lorraine period , that the contrasts between the parties began to aspire to deeper bitterness : in 1776 , together with a more complex and general operation of the territorial reorganization , Castagneto lost its autonomy and was incorporated , along with centers of Bolgheri and Donoratico , in the community of Gherardesca , seeing delete their name to the whole favor of a new and unwelcome determination. To counter the change has occurred , which recognized the primary role exercised by the noble family of that part of the Maremma, the castagnetani turned to the Grand Duke Peter Leopold a heartfelt appeal , denouncing the serious state of neglect in which they poured the areas controlled by the Gherardesca and asking will be removed from their feud . The request was not granted, even if the accounts , in the same year , they had to take the law in their territories on the estates , for a long time that emitted in the form substantially reducing the power of the feudal lords , would allow people to gain greater autonomy , could also facilitate the launch of a new , more enlightened economic policy , aimed at satisfying the needs of emerging classes . Deep friction also characterized the nineteenth century life , when the need for freedom and autonomy of the inhabitants continued to clash with the vindication of the rights the Committees , resulting in legal action and public protests . The first clash , which occurred in '44 , was the direct result of the tightening of relations between the castagnetani and the count that in the same year he issued his proclamation , through which reaffirmed the ancient prohibition on hunting and fishing in their estates , and the most violent phase of the fighting in and turned on , however, occurred between '47 and '48 . Memorable, among others, the tumult broke out for the count subtract the oratory of S. citizen Sebastiano ( no longer extant) , who despite being owned by the Community acted as a private chapel of the family Gherardesca . For the intervention and for the careful mediation carried out by Giuliano Ricci was able to reach the end, an agreement between the parties, which ended with the granting to the people of the much coveted preselle and with the final taking of possession by of the City of disputed oratory , as well as the praetorian palace , later converted into the town hall. Also disappeared from the local toponymy odiatadenominazione Community Gherardesca , in place of which was restored to Castagneto that seems to derive from the type of vegetation of the area, with the adjective Maritime . The truce , however, is not completely exhausted the chain of friction , which soured again at the end of the century, for the usual chores of hunting and wood gathering : strong objections , moreover, were addressed to the count by the municipality for ' high fee charged for the license to use local source . Because of the water depended on the improvement of hygienic conditions , the colors dissidioassunse particularly heated , resulting even in a case . Not surprisingly , in the face of so many and so serious opposition, in 1907 the City Council decided to renaming itself with the name of Castagneto Carducci. In fact, if the choice is certainly grasped the intention to pay homage to a great poet , perpetuating the memory of his stay in Bolgheri and Castagneto , where the child lived for many years, tornandovi as a guest during maturity, we must not forget that the Joshua 's father , Michael, a surgeon long active in these places , was among the staunchest opponents of feudal rights , living starring the season of civic unrest that preceded the riots of '48 . The surname Carducci therefore definitively joined the secular name of the country , seals emblematic thoroughfare in the secular path made ​​by the men of this land for the conquest of liberty